News – November Newsletter

November Nonsense

Ever felt you’re completely burned out, begging for a month to disappear and catch your breath… you suddenly get it, and immediately realise you really just needed to sleep in a few days and stop worrying about what happens next? Ever wondered how you stop yourself from over-committing again so things are a little more balanced? Or why we use questions we don’t want answers to in an attempt to engage others with our otherwise bland narrative?

Things have significantly shifted in the last few weeks: away from the mad-dash of constantly travelling over the last 2 years, and into something slower paced but far more productive.

I’ve published more on Patreon and joshrichards.space these last few weeks than any time before, and yet it’s also been less stressful to get things written than any time before… probably because I’ve cut back on trying to speak directly to every damn person on Earth about how I’m trying to abandon them to live on a desolate, toxic red rock

That said there’s still been plenty of interviews, including an amazing feature by Stories Out Loud and a chat with Chris from Science Over Everything about the latest from Mars One. I’ve just updated my Media page over at joshrichards.space and discovered I’ve done on average an interview every week for the last 4 years… no wonder I’m sick of my own voice.

I’m also really excited to be at the Women in Technology (WA) breakfast event on November 16th – speaking about my weird career path to Mars One, before hosting a panel on the jobs of the future with four extraordinary women leading tech innovation. It’ll be wonderful to talk not just about jobs of the future, but also why we work and how technology is changing that.

That focus on “why” we work and how technology is changing society isn’t accidental either – I’m very proud to say that I’ve just been accepted by the University of Twente to start a Masters programme in September 2018 on the Philosophy of Science, Technology and Society! A lot could happen between now and September, but I’m excited about the prospect of doing a masters while asking what it means to be human and how technology shapes that!

Before I jet off to the Netherlands though I’ve got plenty of applications and writing to get on with, and I’ve been sharing most of it on Patreon!

For those of you supporting me on Patreon you’ve had plenty of exclusive content this month, and there’s a LOT more on the way in December!

Things have been just as busy over on my website, as I’ve finally gotten around to posting all the content I’d been too busy to share over the last few months!

  • Space – IAC2017 Wrap-Up – A huge summary of the 2017 International Astronautical Congress in Adelaide, covering all the highs and lows across 5 days of total spacey madness.
  • Personal – Motivation Letter – I’ve been accepted for a rather amazing Masters program in the Netherlands that will start September 2018, and this is the letter I wrote to the university detailing my motivations for choosing their program over any other in the world.
  • Space – IAC Paper: Laughing At Mars – The paper I submitted and presented at the 2017 International Astronautical Congress last month, detailing all of the adult science engagement (eg. anything outside of a school) I’ve done over the last 5 years.
  • Colonising Mars – School Skype Q&A – After a Skype call to a Year 4 class I typed my answers to their questions so they (and you) could read them later!

2018 is already shaping up to be an incredibly exciting year – more intense than 2017 but with a lot less travel and a lot more focused on writing… which is great for all of you reading online, and also perfect practice for someone who eventually wants to live 56 million kilometers away from crowds!

So as always keep an eye on Patreon for the latest news and articles, regular posts on joshrichards.space as well as my more sporadic nonsense on Facebook & Twitter!

Stay awesome,
Josh

Colonising Mars – School Skype Q&A

I’ve mentioned it before, but I spend much of my time either visiting schools or skype calling them to answer questions about Mars One. Often I’ll end up answering a mountain of questions sent through after a school incursion from kids who couldn’t make it on the day, however this week I was sent a list of questions before a school skype call so I knew what their students were going to ask.

While Skype calls are far more engaging than just answering questions via email, often a lot of the detail gets lost in the process. With that in mind I wrote up answers to the questions I was sent this week, and sent them to the teacher so that she and her students had written answers to come back to, and so that you could all read the answers to the genuinely insightful questions I often get from Year 4 groups!

How did you find out about Mars One? I’d just finished my fourth year at the Edinburgh Fringe festival, performing comedy as a giant ukulele-playing koala called “Keith the Anger Management Koala”, and was living in Brighton (UK) reassessing what I wanted to do with my life. Comedy was hard work and I wasn’t enjoying it enough to keep going, so I decided I was going to write one final Edinburgh fringe show on something I’d been thinking about for 3 years – sending people one-way to Mars. I knew from my physics degree that we could get people to Mars, but didn’t have the technology to bring them back, so I was sitting in a coffee shop in Brighton researching a comedy show about going one-way to Mars when I discovered Mars One!

Who or what inspired you to go to Mars? For me Mars isn’t special – it’s just one of many destinations in the solar system we should be looking to explore and colonise. I’d wanted to be an astronaut when I saw Andy Thomas being selected as Australia’s first professional astronaut in 1992 when I was 7, but I knew he’d had to become a US citizen in order to join NASA so I forgot about wanting to be an astronaut and go to space for nearly 20 years. It wasn’t until after I left the military at 25 that I suddenly remembered one night that I’d wanted to be an astronaut as a kid, and just after I turned 27 I discovered Mars One. When I realised Mars One was open to any one regardless of their nationality, I knew I needed to sign up to help make humanity a dual-planet species.

How does the selection process for who’s going to Mars work? You can read a full description here on the selection process from Mars One’s Chief Medical Selector Dr Norbert Kraft, but the short story is that in 2013 Mars One had 202,586 people start the online application, only 4,227 successfully completed it. From there Mar One selected 1,058 candidates they thought were serious about the application and sent them for a medical exam very similar to what a commercial pilot requires each year. 660 of the people who passed the medical exam were offered a psychology interview, and from those people the current 100 were selected for their understanding of the mission and their motivations for applying.

The next phase of selection is expected in 2018, when the remaining 100 candidates all get together for 5 days to see how we work in teams. This will cut the group down to 12-24 people who will start 14 years of training as full-time employees of Mars One. Teams of 4 will be tested to find who works together most effectively, and shortly before the final launch date there will be a vote involving both expert judges and the public to select the team who will be first to go.

Do you have to have a special skill to be able to go to Mars? The most important skill you need to go to Mars is to self-reflect and know yourself really well. Mars One needs people who are a bit like MacGyver – not the best in the world at one thing, but very skilled at a lot of different things and fast learners of new things. People who are resilient, curious, trustworthy, adaptable and resourceful; but above all they need to be honest with themselves and know what their strengths and weaknesses are so that they can help the team and the mission most effectively.

Do you have to pay to go? I had to pay about $30AUD when I first applied, so that someone else could be paid to read my application and decide if I was serious enough to be one of the 1,058 selected in the first round. Since then I’ve never needed to pay anything, however since 2014 I have bought a lot of Mars One merchandise to give away at National Science Week so I could promote what Mars One is doing.

Are you scared that you won’t come back? I’m excited about the opportunity to explore a whole other planet! To travel further than anyone ever has before, and help humanity learn more about the universe we’re part of. Earth is a pretty amazing place for humans and there’s lots of incredible things to want to stay for, but I’m excited about being part of something that is so much bigger than me that it will change the way we see ourselves as a species.

Will you miss your loved ones? Ofcourse, but at the same time I’ll be doing something way bigger than myself, bigger than my friends and family, something that will help people everywhere look to the sky and see life from an orbital perspective. A lot of people get really attached to their family, friends, pets, car, house, football team and country – living on Mars is something that is so much bigger than all of that, so while I’ll miss my loved ones we all know that what I’m involved with is so much bigger than my individual relationships.

What did your friends and family say when they found out you are in the running to go to Mars? It varied a lot initially, and has changed a lot over the last 5 years as I’ve been shortlisted further. My Mum and Dad were pretty upset when they first heard I applied but have always been very supportive of whatever I choose to do with my life, especially supporting the work I do visiting schools and talking to kids about space exploration. A lot of my friends laughed it off when they first heard, but as time has gone on my good friends have made more of an effort to catch-up and people I was friends with but not that close too have disappeared.

Will there be a way for you to contact your family and friends? We’ll have email that we can send messages, videos and files back and forth between Earth and mars, however the distance between Earth and Mars means those messages will take between 4 and 22 minutes each way because that’s how long it takes light to travel between the planets. So no instant messaging, video chat, or even phone calls – we’ll have to record audio or video messages, send them to Earth, and then wait at least 8 minutes for a reply.

Are you scared? nervous? I’m excited about the opportunity to do something really incredible that will help humanity learn more about the universe and change the way we see ourselves – to make humanity a dual-planet species. Right now all I can do is answer questions, write and do interviews in-between getting myself physically and mentally ready for the next phase of selection, so while I might feel nervous when the next selection comes around I’ll also know I’ve done all I could to be prepare for it, regardless of whether I get selected or not.

Do kids get to go as well? For now you have to be at least 18 to apply for legal reasons, however we also don’t want to send kids to Mars for quite awhile after we’ve sent adult, because we don’t know how living on Mars will effect the astronauts’ bones and muscles. Kids muscles and bones grow in response to the effects of gravity, and with just 38% as much gravity of Mars we don’t know how kids bones would be effected. There’s a really high risk that kids growing up on Mars would have really weak bones and muscles compared to kids growing up on Earth because of the difference in gravity, so until we know more about how Mars gravity affects adult bones we really don’t want to be risking sending kids.

Where will you live on Mars? Mars One is looking at colony sites between 42 and 45deg north of the Martian equator, in a band from +130deg to -190deg latitude stretching from Utopia Planitia (near where Viking 2 landed) to Arcardia Planitia (directly north of Olympus Mons). We need somewhere that’s got fairly level ground with lots of water in it, but not so far north that our solar power won’t work. The area near where Viking 2 landed looks especially promising, but we’ll need to send more probes there to be sure. We’ll be using rovers to dig up the water-laden dirt, extract the water using an oven, and then dump the dry dirt on top of our living habitat to provide radiation protection. We’ll be living indoors under these mounds of dry dirt most of the time, but we can go outside (in spacesuits) for 1 hour per day on average for 60 years before reaching our safe radiation dose limit.

What do you want to do on Mars? I want to tell the story of what life is like for the first people living on another planet. There’s lots of science and maintenance to be done – such as medical research into how our bodies are changing in the reduced gravity, geology to learn more about Mars’ past, or repairing life support systems and growing plants to eat. But for me the really interesting part of sending humans to Mars is sharing the story of what it’s like for people to live there. Our colony of Mars will be very similar to an Antarctic research base initially, so just like the stories of the first Antarctic explorers I want to record the human experience of living on another planet.

What happens if you miss Mars and go past it? Short answer is we die! The spaceship taking us to Mars will only have just enough resources to get us to Mars, and not enough to get us all the way back to Earth if something goes wrong. This is why we have to work so hard to get things right, but also have to accept that there’s a much higher risk of us dying in an accident trying to get to Mars than if we stayed on Earth. Doing things that no one has ever done before means accepting there might be things that go wrong that you didn’t expect because you don’t have all the answers – if you already knew all the answers it wouldn’t be exploring!

How will you grow plants if Mars has toxic soil? The perchlorate salts in the Martian soil are toxic to humans by shutting down our thyroid function, however experiments in the Netherlands has shown that plants grown in Mars-like soil don’t absorb any of the perchlorates. The cool thing about perchlorates too is that they LOVE water, so you can easily remove them from the soil just by washing it. As an added bonus, if you collect the perchlorate-laden water and dehydrate out the perchlorate salts, they can be used as an oxidiser for rocket fuel! So the chemical that makes Martian soil to humans can be easily extracted and possibly used to launch rockets back to Earth.

What do you think it will be like in the rocket? The 7 month journey to Mars will be the toughest part. We’ll be four people inside a relatively small spaceship – cramped in with 800kg of dry food, 3000L of water, and 700kg of oxygen. We’ll want to point our spaceship away from the Sun almost the whole way to Mars so that the rocket engines and fuel block as much radiation from the Sun as possible, so we won’t have a day/night rotation because the Sun will always be in the same spot behind us, and also means we won’t see any stars out the window (besides the Sun). We also have to be watch out for Coronal Mass Ejections – huge eruptions from the Sun that happen reasonably regularly. Here on Earth we’re protected by the Earth’s magnetic field, but aspaceship on the way to Mars will be exposed to a huge amount of radiation if a Coronal Mass Ejection is thrown towards them during their 7 month journey, so the four astronauts will need to hide for 2-3 days in a radiation shelter in the middle of the spaceship that is about the size of a telephone booth.

Are you going to take technology with you? Will it work? We’ll be completely dependent on technology just to stay alive on Mars. Our life support systems will be working constantly to process our air and water, we’ll need to use solar power technology to provide power to the colony, and because we’ll be indoors and underground we’ll need special LED lighting systems to grow plants. A lot of technology will work exactly the same on Mars – things like computers will work exactly the same – however some of the systems will need to be adapted because of the reduced gravity. Toilets and showers will work mostly the same, but we’ll need to change the way water moves through them because water won’t flow as fast in the reduced gravity. If you used a normal shower on Mars the water would come out of the shower head in huge, slow-falling droplets because the water’s surface tension would affect the shape of the droplets more than gravity.

How are you going to contact Earth? We’ll use laser communication satellites between Earth and Mars to send messages, but they’ll still be limited to the speed of light which takes 4-20 minutes to travel between the planets. Lasers are more difficult to use for communication than radio is, but you can send a LOT more information with a lot less power using laser light than you can with regular radio waves. There are times when you can’t communicate directly because the Earth and Mars are on opposite sides of the Sun, so about every 2 years NASA has to shut down all communications with their rovers and satellites on Mars for about 6 weeks because the Sun is in the way. Mars One will get around that by placing a communications satellite in a special orbit around the Sun so that it can always see both Earth and Mars, that way communications can be relayed by the satellite when the Sun is blocking Earth’s view of Mars.

How old will you be when you leave? If we launch in February 2031 I’ll be 45, and I’ll have my 46th birthday in space a few months before we land on Mars!

What do you do in your free time? Right now I do a lot of reading and writing about Mars, and lots of exercise to stay fit and ready for the next Mars One selection. I also play ukulele as much as I can, and I’ve also started to learn to draw!

Do you like particle physics? I love particle physics and try to stay up to date with the latest news on discoveries about the universe are the smallest level, but my university studies were mostly of physics at the other end of the scale in astrophysics and cosmology. I like all forms of physics because it’s a way of investigating and learning more about the universe we live in.

How does it feel to be so close to accomplishing your dream? I still feel like I’m a long way off “accomplishing” my dream. We still have selections to get through, then 14 years of training where anything could happen to stop this mission or my role in it. Even once I launch to Mars my job isn’t done – I’ll still be working to survive, working to share the story of colonising Mars with the rest of humanity, working to make things easier for the people who come after me. Every day I get to write, talk and think about living on another planet, so I don’t think I’ll even “accomplish my dream” because that would mean I’m complete and don’t have to do anything any more. While being selected and being one of the first people on Mars would be an amazing accomplishment, it would also just be the start of a new adventure to discover more about the universe except on a different planet to the one I was born on.

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Space – IAC Paper: Laughing at Mars

 

The regular space posts have been pretty quiet here for the last few months as I’ve been finishing/publishing Becoming Martian, so I’m happy to say things will be returning to more regular scheduling now that it’s out in the wild!

I’ll be returning to the “Getting To Mars” series in the next few weeks to conclude it before the end of 2017, but first I wanted to share the other thing that consumed so much of my time after Becoming Martian was published – my IAC2017 paper! I originally had two abstracts accepted to the conference, but decided to withdraw one so I could focus on the one I cared most about: summarising the work I’ve done over the last 5 years in adult science engagement using Mars One as a hook.

I’ll share video of my presentation of this paper in Adelaide at IAC separately soon, but in the meantime enjoy reading my paper on how to use comedians and storytellers to engage the public with space!


IAC-17-E1.6.2

Laughing at Mars: Using Comedians and Storytellers for Wide-Spread Public Engagement With Space

Josh Richards –  Launchpad Speaking, Perth, Western Australia

Abstract
This paper looks at a range of space outreach events conducted since 2013 for the general public, with a specific focus on using comedy and storytelling to engage adults not already interested in space. A major challenge in space science communication is making an incredibly interesting subject accessible and relevant to the general public: while few would deny the broad appeal of space exploration to kids, a lack of engaging space science events for adults often means that childhood enthusiasm fades.   Using stand-up comedy and Mars One’s proposed one-way mission to Mars as a science communication “hook”, adult audiences have been engaged and taught complex space science while they laughed during three, one-hour long comedy shows performed more than 40 times in 6 different countries since 2013. “Mars Needs Guitars” blended space science with personal storytelling around the concept that the first Mars crew would need a balance of personalities similar to a stereotypical rock band, and was first performed during Australia’s National Science Week with the support of Inspiring Australia. “Becoming Martian” shared how colonizing Mars would change humans physically, psychologically and culturally; and was also published as a non-fiction book at National Science Week 2017. “Cosmic Nomad” featured at the World Science Festival and shared how being shortlisted for a one-way mission to Mars impacts a candidate’s life while still on Earth, while also explaining the search for extraterrestrial life, the Drake equation, and the Fermi Paradox by using a Tinder metaphor.   General public engagement with space science was also achieved through large scale media events such as 20th Century Fox’s “Bring Him Home” campaign for the Australian release of “The Martian”. Coordinating with numerous television and radio stations, along with global media outlets and a sustained social media presence, the “Bring Him Home” campaign engaged more than 95 million people with space science and STEAM education while the author lived “like Mark Watney” isolated in a glass and steel habitat for 5 days. Numerous external organisations such as Boston’s Museum of Science and Sydney’s Museum of Applied Arts and Science have also been partnered with for ongoing educational impact and long-term space science engagement.

Keywords: Comedy, Storytelling, Mars One, STEM, STEAM

Nomenclature None.
Acronyms/Abbreviations STEM – Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. STEAM – Science, Technology, Engineering, Art and Mathematics

1. Introduction  A major challenge in space science communication is making an incredibly interesting subject accessible and relevant to the general public. While few would deny the broad appeal of space exploration to kids, a lack of engaging space science events for adults often means that childhood enthusiasm fades. Adults who didn’t pursue a career in science immediately after secondary school are largely ignored by institutional outreach programs as they focus on encouraging students to pursue tertiary study in STEM studies, while significant government funding to encourage STEM skill training encourages this focus. Unfortunately this narrow focus often leads to alienation of adults who haven’t pursued studies and work in STEM fields, as they feel they’re “Not smart enough to understand”, “Not interested in science”, or that it’s “Meant for kids” to even attempt to engage with space science outreach events.

This paper aims to demonstrate that by supporting comedians and storytellers with an interest in space, science, space science can be communicated far more effectively to adult audiences through the incorporation of the arts. Case studies over five years are presented where the author has used public interest in Mars One’s proposed 2031 one-way human mission to Mars as a vehicle specifically for the engagement of adult public audiences with space science through STEAM – Science, Technology, Engineering, Art and Mathematics.

2. Material and methods

Mars One’s announcement in 2012 of a one-way human Mars colonisation mission generated significant global media coverage, and continues to generate considerable media attention as the project progresses five years on. Utilising a personal interest in space exploration and experience as a professional stand-up comedian, the author began creating comedy shows based around the science and human story of applying for a one-way mission to Mars.

2.1 “Mars Need Guitars!”

With the support of Inspiring Australia, “Mars Needs Guitars!” was a 50 minute stand-up comedy show initially written Australia’s 2013 National Science Week. Named after the Hoodoo Guru’s album, the show was written around the concept that the first four Mars One crew members would need a mix of personalities similar to those found in a stereotypical rock band, and presenting who the author would want to take to Mars and why. Rather than purely aiming for laughs, this show’s intention was to interest adult audiences through a mixture of science-based comedy and deeply personal storytelling, spelling out the very real risks of a human Mars mission in jargon-free language, and finally asking who in the audience would be willing to sign up. The author had applied to Mars One’s 2013 astronaut applications in the April, however applications were still open during National Science Week 2013. With this in mind performances of “Mars Needs Guitars!” concluded each night with an open call for interested audience members to apply to Mars One too.

A trial show was performed at The Butterfly Club (Melbourne, Australia) prior to being performed over three consecutive nights at Scitech (Perth, Australia) during the 2013 National Science Week, with the final Perth performance being filmed[1]. After a follow-up performance at the “Living On Mars” conference at the University of Twente (Enschede, The Netherlands) in November 2013 was also filmed [2], “Mars Needs Guitars!” was shelved so writing could commence on a new Mars One-based show for 2014.

Responses to “Mars Needs Guitars!” were extremely positive, with audiences appreciating the jargon-free approach to space exploration carefully combined with emotion-driven storytelling and especially dark humour. Approximately 350 people in total saw “Mars Needs Guitars!” across five performances in two countries.

2.2 “Becoming Martian”

With the author shortlisted as one of 705 Mars One candidates and building on the success of the performances of “Mars Needs Guitars!” during the National Science Week 2013, “Becoming Martian” was written initially as a 50 minute science communication stage show for National Science Week 2014 before being published as a non-fiction book three years later to coincide with National Science Week 2017. Focused on how the colonisation of Mars will change humans physiologically, psychologically and culturally (“body, mind and soul”), “Becoming Martian” removed the personal stories that had been present in “Mars Needs Guitars!” and presented a far more scientific and objective narrative on the implications of humans colonising Mars.

2.2.1 “Becoming Martian” Stage Show Tour

With the support of Inspiring Australia, “Becoming Martian” was performed across three consecutive nights at Scitech (Perth, Western Australia) during the 2014 National Science Week, with the final performance in Perth being filmed for DVD. After a follow-up performance at the “CultureTECH” festival (Londonderry, Northern Ireland) in September 2014 “Mars Needs Guitars!” was shelved as the author decided to reassess artistic direction.  Responses to “Mars Needs Guitars!” were overwhelmingly positive however the author was deeply disappointed with the stage show, with a strong sense that it was “soul-less” to only focus on the science of Mars colonisation and exclude the raw and deeply personal stories that had defined “Mars Needs Guitars!”. Approximately 300 people in total saw “Becoming Martian” across four performances in two countries.

2.2.2 “Becoming Martian” Show Support Events

Alongside performances of “Becoming Martian”, for National Science Week 2014 the author also coordinated public talks on space exploration at the Perth Science Festival, a space-science and poetry-reading talk “The Physicist and The Poet” in conjunction with poet Bronwyn Lovell, a science-themed comedy night “Shapiro Tuesdays Science Week Special” with the Brisbane Hotel (Perth), as well as a public space-science talk and gaming session “Kerbals on the Big Screen” on the Perth Cultural Centre’s 8m wide LED “Super Screen”.    Follow up support events were also run at the 2014 National Young Writer’s Festival, notably a space-science education and small-team psychology workshop called “How To Be An Astronaut”. Approximately 480 people in total attended six separate support events across Australia.

2.2.3 “Becoming Martian” Book Release

Based on the 2014 stage show of the same name but with radically updated and expanded content, “Becoming Martian” was released as a humorous non-fiction book for National Science Week 2017. After the author’s disappointment with the “dry” nature of the original stage show and on-going delays with a leading international publisher, the book was re-written with a far more engaging and personal tone (while still retaining the essential premise and structure of the 2014 stage show) and self-published.  “Becoming Martian” is currently available in 35 countries and on sale in six Australian and US science museums. Australian print sales currently exceed 200 (as of September 2017) and are projected to exceed 1000 before the end of 2017.

2.2.4 “Becoming Martian“ Book Support Events

Public talks and book launches were organised across Australia to support the publication of “Becoming Martian”. Curtin University’s ChemCentre (Perth, Australia) hosted the first book launch and public talk during National Science Week 2017, with a second book launch held four days later at the Museum of Applied Arts and Sciences (Sydney, Australia) as the final event of both Sydney Science Festival 2017 and National Science Week 2017. Approximately 220 people in total attended two events.

2.3 “Cosmic Nomad”

Developed independently, “Cosmic Nomad” was a 50 minute science-comedy show initially written for the 2016 Adelaide Fringe Festival, starting an eight month global tour including the World Science Festival (Brisbane, Australia), Melbourne (Australia), Launceston  (Australia), Ulverstone (Australia), Hobart (Australia), Cincinnati (Ohio, United States), Haifa (Israel) and Cork (Ireland).

Learning from the mistakes made with “Becoming Martian” and capitalising on the strengths of “Mars Needs Guitars!”, “Cosmic Nomad” was written once the author had been selected as one of 100 Mars One candidates worldwide, and shared how being shortlisted for a one-way mission to Mars had significantly changed the author’s personal life – notably what the author would try to do before leaving Earth behind forever. Implications for the author’s relationships were also explored through the search for extraterrestrial life, the Drake equation, and the Fermi Paradox by using a Tinder metaphor. With a clear focus to interest adult audiences rather than entertaining or educating them, “Cosmic Nomad” was deliberately written to make the author uncomfortable and vulnerable (both emotionally and physically) on stage to provide an account of life as a Mars One candidate that was as raw and honest as possible.

Audience responses to “Cosmic Nomad” were overwhelmingly positive, praising it for it’s ability to blend storytelling, comedy and heartbreak while sharing space science. Theatre critics ranged in response from cheerfully positive to deliberately vicious. Given the deeply personal nature of the show and the vulnerability required to perform it however, the author ‘s only response to negative critical review to date has been  howling laughter, often followed by an expletive-laced recommendation for the critic to share their opinion elsewhere. Approximately 2250 people in total saw “Cosmic Nomad” across 24 performances in four countries.

2.4 Individual Events  Alongside the three science-comedy stage shows, numerous other adult space-science engagement events have been organised and performed by the author. The most notable examples between 2013 and 2018 are described below.

2.4.1 “Bring Him Home”DVD Release Event

Andy’s Weir’s bestselling novel “The Martian” and subsequent film starring Matt Damon actively embraced  adult non-specialist audiences with space science through humour in a Mars setting. Given the obvious parallels between the main character Mark Watney and this paper’s author – especially in the context of applying humour to space science and Martian exploration – 20th Century Fox engaged the author for a five-day art installation on Circular Quay (Sydney, Australia) in February 2016 to promote the DVD release of “The Martian” in Australia.

This installation was a self-contained living unit with 26.1m^3 of habitable living space under 24 hour video surveillance and glass walls, in which the author had to live while completing challenges designed around being marooned solo on Mars like the character. While some challenges were fictionalised to demonstrate space science and provide interest to the audience outside and watching online; many others such as heat management, electrical power control and communications were genuine installation issues that needed to be resolved through science and engineering. Physical and psychological fitness assessments of the author were also conducted remotely over the length of the installation.  Approximately 50 thousand people viewed the “Bring Him Home” installation on Sydney’s Circular Quay across the five days, while 95 million people engaged with content for radio, television, web articles and social media.

2.4.2 “Moving to Mars”

During the eight month “Cosmic Nomad” tour, the Museum of Science (Boston , MA) contacted the author to host a public talk with four other Mars One candidates, discussing the personal journey for each and the implications of being shortlisted for a one-way mission to Mars. Approximately 350 people attended this 2 hour event hosted at the Museum of Science’s main theatre in October 2016.

2.4.4 The Laborastory

The Laborastory is a monthly science storytelling event hosted at the Spotted Mallard (Melbourne, Australia) where science communicators share the personal story of their favourite scientists from history through a 10 minute spoken word presentation without slides. The author was invited to speak at two Laborastory events in 2015 to share the stories of Sally Ride [3] and Wernher Von Braun [4]. Approximately 500 people in total attended these two events.

2.4.4 PlanetTalks – WOMADelaide

The author was invited to speak alongside  Mars analogue commander Carmel Johnston at two of events organised through the University of South Australia and the 2017 WOMADelaide festival. These events were panels hosted by leading Australian journalists facilitating a discussion on the future of human space exploration and Mars colonisation, with both events being recorded [5][6]. Approximately 1200 people in total attended these two events in Adelaide during April 2017.

2.5 Media Engagement

Significant global media attention has been focused on Mars One and it’s candidates, especially since astronaut applications first opened in April 2013. Utilising this interest in the human story of Mars One, the author has also served as a media ambassador to National Science Week (2016 and 2017), the Perth Science Festival (2017) and the Sydney Science Festival (2017). Between June 2013 and September 2017 the author has been interviewed for radio, TV, newspaper and web content  more more than 200 times [7], sharing space science and personal perspectives on space exploration directly with mass media outlets in nine different countries and syndicated globally.

3. Calculation

Due to the wide range of adult engagement approaches, multiple methods are required to calculate attendance and engagement. Engagement is calculated on reported ticket or book sales. This calculation approach applies all activities listed under section 2 excluding 2.4.1 “Bring Him Home”DVD Release Event, and 2.5 Media Engagement.

Engagement with 2.4.1 “Bring Him Home” DVD Release Event was compiled by Frank PR. Engagement with the installation itself was calculated on Sydney city council measurements of approximately 10,000 people passing the Circular Quay Overseas Passenger Jetty (the location of the installation) each day over five days. Social media engagement was calculated as the total listeners, viewers and readers for radio, television and web respectively; being measured by broadcasters and content providers for advertising purposes.

Calculation of 2.5 Media Engagement is from consistent cataloguing of interviews for radio, TV and web content since June 2013 until July 2017, with 157 interviews recorded. An additional 44-47 interviews were conducted during National Science Week 2017 and another 5-8 since August 2017 that have not yet been publicly published and catalogued.

4. Results and Discussion

Engagement from August 2013 to August 2017 is calculated at approximately 55,650 people in total across 47 public events targeted at non-specialist adults. It is important to note that approximately 50,000 of these engagements come from 2.4.1 “Bring Him Home”DVD Release Event. Removing this individual outlier, average audience size is approximately 120 people per event.  It is also important to note that the calculated engagement figures do not include adult events closed to the general public (such as invite-only corporate events) or events for students. Total engagement for closed adult events since August 2013 is estimated at 2,000 to 3,000. Total engagement for student events since August 2013 is estimated at 90,000 to 100,000.

Given the relative lack of adult space science outreach when compared to funding for student STEM engagement, considerable future opportunities have been presented to the author to continue to engage the under-appreciated adult non-specialist demographic with space science.   Expanding on the growing success of 2.2.3 “Becoming Martian” Book Release, an audiobook version of “Becoming Martian” will be recorded in November 2017 to engage adults through audio rather than written text. As “Becoming Martian” was turned from a 2014 stage show into a 2017 non-fiction book, work has already begun on turning “Cosmic Nomad” from a 2016 stage show into a non-fiction book being released for National Science Week 2018. Two further non-fiction books are also being actively researched and developed, respectively focussed on humanity’s relationship with the cosmos and our perception of reality.

Consistent engagement with the media has also presented considerable opportunities to work more directly in radio and television. Three television shows based on student and adult space science engagement and education are currently being negotiated in Australia and the United States, with similar standing offers in Australian commercial and community broadcast radio.

5. Conclusions

Effective space science engagement for non-specialist adults is sorely needed to make space accessible to everyone, not just for students or adults with careers in a STEM field. Incredible opportunities for space science engagement are available by supporting comedians and storytellers to add the “A” for arts into STEM to make it STEAM, while further opportunities are available to science communicators willing to develop and present space science in an interesting and engaging manner for non-specialist adult audiences. Mass media is a significant amplifier for communicating space science, provided scientists embrace opportunities to share their work through humour and focusing on the human story of science.

Acknowledgements

The author would like to formally acknowledge Inspiring Australia, which has funded and supported the author’s work through numerous projects since 2013, as well as Mars One, without whom the author would likely never have moved into space science communication. The author would also like to acknowledge the following organisations for hosting and supporting adult space-science engagement events in partnership with the author: Scitech Science Museum, the University of Twente, CultureTECH, Australia’s Science Channel at Royal Institute of Australia, World Science Festival Brisbane, the Boston Museum of Science, WOMADelaide, Curtin University’s ChemCentre, and the Museum of Applied Arts and Science.

References

[1] Josh Richards, Josh Richards – Mars Needs Guitars! (Full Show – August 15, 2013)  youtu.be/fCNoWgSa0fI (accessed 5/9/2017)
[2] Living On Mars Convention, LOMC Josh Richards, youtu.be/kRcyfD2Bk4s (accessed 5/9/2017)
[3] The Laborastory, Josh Richards on Sally Ride, youtu.be/Qiwy2-QXhoA (accessed 5/9/2017)
[4] The Laborastory, Josh Richards on Wernher Von Braun, youtu.be/adNU_2Urir0 (accessed 5/9/2017)
[5] HawkeCentre, Life on Mars, youtu.be/ttnEeLHT8Xc(accessed 5/9/2017)
[6] Radio National – The Science Show, Fly me to Mars!, www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/scienceshow/fly-me-to-mars!/8625154 (accessed 6/9/2017) [7] Josh Richards, Media,  joshrichards.space/media/ (accessed 5/9/2017)

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Personal – Motivation Letter

Hey folks,
You’ve probably noticed things have been a little quiet around here lately, and the fact is I’m basically burned out from an absolutely mental year… well, really a mental TWO years, and an emotionally bruising year before that too. Living out of a backpack is incredibly liberating, but it’s also meant being “on” non-stop for the last two years – constantly planning where I need to be next, how I’ll get there and where I’ll sleep each night. If I was just walking and camping things wouldn’t be particularly stressful, but the constant schedule juggling to try and visit schools, speak at events and do ALL the things from an office you carry in a bag has been pretty draining.
I’ve realised increasingly this year that what I really want to be doing is writing books and articles for Patreon/my website, with the occasional trip to speak or present somewhere before returning to a semi-stable environment. I want to spend more time writing about space exploration’s impact on humanity from my perspective of someone preparing to leave Earth behind, and a lot less time talking about it.
With that in mind, I’ve applied for a 2 year Master’s programme in the “Philosophy of Science, Technology and Society” at the University of Twente (UT) in the Netherlands. It’s the only masters in the world looking at the relationship between technology and society from a philosophical perspective, and UT is also Mars One’s education partner. I’ve applied to start in February 2018, but it makes a lot more sense if I wait till the new academic year starts in September 2018 – not only will I get to apply for a mountain of scholarships that aren’t available in February, but I’ll also be able to use the time between now and then to write my next book (Cosmic Nomad) for the 2018 National Science Week before flying out to the Netherlands. Ofcourse Mars One making a major announcement in the next few weeks (as I suspect they will) could change ALL of this, but I’m keen to not put my Master’s off any longer and I’m particularly excited about what is being offered by this programme at UT, so I’ve applied and will see what the next few months bring.
Besides sending the usual CV and academic transcripts, part of the application process was to write a “Letter of Motivation” on why I felt compelled to apply. If I need to reapply for the September 2018 intake then I’ll be removing two of the penultimate paragraphs and probably adding a bit about publishing Cosmic Nomad, but this is what I sent to the University of Twente’s admissions office – enjoy.
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To Whom It May Concern,
My name is Josh Richards and I would like to formally submit this letter of motivation for my application to the University of Twente’s Philosophy of Science, Technology and Society (PSTS) two-year Master’s programme. I believe this programme is uniquely relevant to my current professional experience as an interdisciplinary artist and science communicator with an extensive background in the ethical and technological challenges of humanity’s development into a multi-planetary species.
As one of 100 shortlisted global candidates to Mars One’s one-way Mars colonisation mission in 2031, I’ve used my experience as a physicist and professional stand-up comedian to advocate for the critical role the humanities and social sciences must play as we race towards a permanent human presence beyond low-Earth orbit. University of Twente’s tagline High tech, human touch resonates strongly with my efforts over the last 5 years to use comedy and deeply personal storytelling to communicate the ethical, scientific, engineering and emotional challenges of humanity’s next “giant leap”. Through three internationally-toured science-comedy stage shows and writing my book Becoming Martian (ISBN:9780648135609) on how humanity will change physically, psychologically and culturally by colonising Mars, it has become increasingly clear that my deepest interest is in the philosophy of using technology to expand the human experience and to ask what kind of relationship our species wants to have with the Universe.
Given the PSTS is the only Master’s programme in the world with a genuinely philosophical approach to the role of technology in society, that Mars One’s CEO Bas Lansdorp is a University of Twente alumni who strongly encouraged me to study in Enchede, and that I’ve previously lectured at the University of Twente as part of the 2013 Living On Mars conference, it’s natural that I would choose this Master’s programme to develop my passion for the philosophy of science and technology’s role in society. The University of Twente’s international orientation, contact-intensive instruction and group project focus mirrors my three years experience as both an alumni and staff member of the International Space University (ISU). Founded on providing an interdisciplinary, intercultural and international educational experience; ISU provided the opportunity for space industry professionals from across the globe with an extraordinary range of professional experiences to collaborate through a shared passion for space exploration – an incredibly challenging yet rewarding experience that I believe the PSTS Master’s will improve on through a shared passion for the philosophy of technology and its role in society.
As a staff member for ISU I was fortunate enough to lead research teams of over 30 in the development of guidance documents for the United Nations and national space agencies for both the use of space technology to provide food/water security; and the ethical, scientific and engineering challenges of human Mars exploration. Given my small-team leadership experience through the Australian Army and British Royal Marine Commandos, ISU also invited me to lecture and run workshops on small-team dynamics at their 2016 summer programs in Adelaide (Australia) and Haifa (Israel). I believe my experience in the management and optimisation of small groups would be a significant asset to the PSTS Master’s programme given its contact-intensive and small group focus, and I would relish the opportunity to utilise a skillset I’ve spent a decade developing.
Given my experience as science and engineering advisor to British contemporary artist Damien Hirst, my ongoing professional interest in using art to engage people with space science and technology, and my writing attempting to tackle the question of how our species will evolve by becoming multi-planetary; I’m especially drawn to the PSTS’s Technology and the Human Being specialisation. As we utilise technology to sustain life in hostile off-Earth environments such as open space, the Moon or Mars; the changes in gravity alone will shift our experience of reality and shape our daily lives differently to those living on Earth. It is my hope that by studying philosophical anthropology and how humans and technology simultaneously influence each other through the Technology and the Human Being specialisation, I will be able to better understand how art, technology and culture may evolve as humanity becomes a multi-planetary species and apply this toward a PhD dissertation in the future.
While I understand that it’s recommended to start the PSTS Master’s in September, given my broad and relevant experience I hope that an allowance to start in February will be granted. I have been eager to enroll in the PSTS Master’s for the last 5 years, but had committed to stay in Australia as a media ambassador to Inspiring Australia and advocate for the formation of an Australian space agency. With the recent announcement at the 2017 International Astronautical Congress in Adelaide for a national space agency however that commitment is complete, and so I’m now eager to further my academic career at the earliest opportunity.
Thank you for taking the time to read this letter explaining my motivations for applying to the University of Twente’s Philosophy of Science, Technology and Society Master’s programme. I sincerely hope that I’ve effectively conveyed my deep-seated conviction that I have both the passion and experience to excel in this programme, and that I have the opportunity to contribute significantly to the ongoing philosophical discussion on technology’s role in human society through the University of Twente.
Yours sincerely,
Josh Richards
***UPDATE***
I’ve just been accepted for the course! If everything goes according to plan I’ll be starting the Masters in September!!!